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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:chushiji.yn.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式(shi)加(jia)工中心吗(ma)?——加(jia)工工件特(te)征

加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)类型的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定需(xu)要(yao)考(kao)虑加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设(she)(she)备价格等(deng)因素,根据所选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)件(jian)族 (组(zu))进行。如果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以(yi)下特(te)征,则(ze)应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin):加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)以(yi)上(shang)的(de)零(ling)件(jian)或加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)四周呈径向(xiang)辐(fu)射状排(pai)列(lie)的(de)孔系、面(mian)(mian),如箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件(jian)等(deng),应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin);被(bei)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)位(wei)置(zhi)精度要(yao)求(qiu)较(jiao)高(gao),宜选(xuan)(xuan)用高(gao)精密卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin);零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)一(yi)次装夹(jia)中需(xu)要(yao)完(wan)成(cheng)多面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)立(li)卧(wo)复(fu)(fu)合(he)式(shi)五面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)。当然,上(shang)述(shu)各点也(ye)不是(shi)绝对的(de),一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)是(shi)由于加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)正朝(chao)着复(fu)(fu)合(he)化方(fang)向(xiang)发展,另一(yi)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)型时要(yao)综合(he)考(kao)虑生产(chan)效率(lv)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)求(qiu)和设(she)(she)备资(zi)金等(deng)因素,要(yao)以(yi)性价比来衡量选(xuan)(xuan)型方(fang)案的(de)合(he)理性。

建议:采购用(yong)户需要根据加工(gong)对象、加工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)、加工(gong)范围等特征来确定(ding)是否使用(yong)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心以及使用(yong)什(shen)么样的(de)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺寸(cun)

这是(shi)卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)心的(de)主参数,主要取决于典型零件(jian)(jian)的(de)外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸、装夹方式等(deng)。应(ying)选择比典型零件(jian)(jian)外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸稍大一些(xie)的(de)工作(zuo)台,以便留出安装夹具所(suo)需的(de)空间,保证零件(jian)(jian)在其上(shang)面能(neng)够顺利(li)装夹,此外还(hai)应(ying)考虑工作(zuo)台的(de)承(cheng)载能(neng)力、T形(xing)槽(cao)数量和尺(chi)寸等(deng),小(xiao)尺(chi)寸的(de)比较通用(yong),比如站内的(de)卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议:目(mu)前市场上的(de)卧(wo)式加工中心工作(zuo)台(tai)尺(chi)寸多为1000以下的(de),能够满足大(da)多数用户的(de)需求。

(2)坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)行程

最基本的(de)(de)坐(zuo)标轴是(shi)X、Y、Z三轴,其(qi)行(xing)程(cheng)和(he)工作(zuo)台尺寸有相应的(de)(de)比例关系(xi),工作(zuo)台面的(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)基本上确定(ding)了加(jia)(jia)(jia)工空间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)。如个(ge)别零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)尺寸大(da)于卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心行(xing)程(cheng)时,则必(bi)须要(yao)(yao)求零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工区域处于机床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)范围之内,此外还要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)零件(jian)(jian)是(shi)否与(yu)机床(chuang)(chuang)交换刀具的(de)(de)空间(jian)(jian)干涉(she)、与(yu)机床(chuang)(chuang)防(fang)护罩等(deng)(deng)附件(jian)(jian)发(fa)生干涉(she)等(deng)(deng)系(xi)列问题(ti)。而对需要(yao)(yao)多轴联动加(jia)(jia)(jia)工的(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心 (如增加(jia)(jia)(jia)回转坐(zuo)标A、B、C或(huo)附加(jia)(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)标U、V、W),如四轴、五(wu)轴联动卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心,这(zhei)就需要(yao)(yao)特殊(shu)订货,同时必(bi)须对相应配套(tao)的(de)(de)编程(cheng)软件(jian)(jian)、测(ce)量手段(duan)以及(ji)机床(chuang)(chuang)价(jia)格等(deng)(deng)有全面的(de)(de)考(kao)虑(lv)和(he)安(an)排。

建议:采购用(yong)户需(xu)要根据加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)规格选(xuan)择不同坐标轴(zhou)行程的卧式加工(gong)(gong)中心(xin),多轴(zhou)联动需(xu)要特殊定(ding)制(zhi)。

(3)主轴电动机功(gong)率与转矩

它反(fan)映(ying)了卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)切削效率,也从一个(ge)侧面反(fan)映(ying)了卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)切削刚(gang)(gang)性和机(ji)床整体刚(gang)(gang)度。主(zhu)轴(zhou)电(dian)动机(ji)功率在同(tong)类规格的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)上可以有各种不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)配置,同(tong)类规格的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转速不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin),主(zhu)轴(zhou)电(dian)动机(ji)功率可以相差很大。

建议:采(cai)购(gou)用(yong)户应(ying)根据自身典型零件(jian)毛坯余(yu)量(liang)大小、切(qie)削能(neng)力 (单(dan)位时间(jian)金属切(qie)削量(liang))、要求达(da)到的(de)加工精度、实际能(neng)配(pei)置的(de)刀具等因素(su)综合选择。

(4)主(zhu)轴转速与进给速度

需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)高(gao)速(su)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)或超低速(su)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)时,应(ying)关(guan)注(zhu)主轴(zhou)的(de)转(zhuan)速(su)范围。特别是高(gao)速(su)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)时,既要(yao)(yao)(yao)有高(gao)的(de)主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su),同时也(ye)要(yao)(yao)(yao)具(ju)备与主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)相匹配(pei)的(de)进给速(su)度(du)(du)。目前卧式加工中心高(gao)速(su)化趋势(shi)发(fa)展很快,主轴(zhou)从每分钟几(ji)千转(zhuan)到几(ji)万(wan)转(zhuan),直线坐标快速(su)移动速(su)度(du)(du)从10—20/min上升到80m/min以上,当(dang)然其功能部件(jian)如电主轴(zhou)、直线电动机(ji)、直线滚动导轨、主轴(zhou)轴(zhou)承等及相配(pei)套的(de)光栅(zha)尺、刀具(ju)等附件(jian)价格也(ye)都相应(ying)上升,甚至很昂贵。

建议:采购用(yong)户必须(xu)根据自身(shen)的技(ji)术能(neng)力和配套能(neng)力合理作(zuo)出卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)的合理选型(xing)。

(5)刀库容量

可以(yi)根据被加(jia)工零件(jian)的(de)工艺(yi)分析结果来(lai)确定所需数(shu)量(liang),通常以(yi)典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)在一次(ci)装夹中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)所需刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具数(shu)量(liang)来(lai)确定刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库的(de)容量(liang),卧式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心以(yi)选(xuan)用40把刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)左右的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库为宜。同时要关注(zhu)最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具直(zhi)径与(yu)长(zhang)度以(yi)及最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具重量(liang)等。用于FMC或(huo)FMS的(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心,应选(xuan)择大容量(liang)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库,甚(shen)至配(pei)置可交换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库。

建议:普通卧(wo)(wo)式加工中心(xin)选(xuan)择40把刀左(zuo)右的刀库即够用,用于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)(wo)式加工中心(xin)应(ying)选(xuan)择大(da)容量(liang)刀库。

3我需(xu)要选用(yong)什么精度的(de)卧式(shi)加工中心?——精度的(de)选定

加工中心的精(jing)度(du)(du)等级主(zhu)要根据典型零(ling)件关键部位(wei)(wei)的精(jing)度(du)(du)来确(que)定(ding)。其精(jing)度(du)(du)主(zhu)要包括定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)、重(zhong)复定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)和(he)铣圆(yuan)精(jing)度(du)(du),特别(bie)是重(zhong)复定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du),它反映(ying)了坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)的定(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳(wen)定(ding)性,是衡量该(gai)轴(zhou)是否稳(wen)定(ding)可靠工作(zuo)的基本指(zhi)标(biao)(biao)。特别(bie)值(zhi)(zhi)得注意的是,选型订货时(shi)必须全面分析(xi),不(bu)能简单地看(kan)产品样(yang)本所列的精(jing)度(du)(du)数值(zhi)(zhi),因为(wei)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)同(tong)、规定(ding)数值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)同(tong)、检(jian)测(ce)方法(fa)不(bu)同(tong),数值(zhi)(zhi)的含义就不(bu)同(tong)。刊(kan)物、样(yang)本、合格(ge)证(zheng)所列出的单位(wei)(wei)长度(du)(du)上允许(xu)的正(zheng)(zheng)负(fu)值(zhi)(zhi)(一般为(wei)正(zheng)(zheng)负(fu)0.05)常常是不(bu)明确(que)的,订货时(shi)要特别(bie)注意,一定(ding)要弄清是IOS(国(guo)际标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)化(hua)组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日(ri)本标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美(mei)国(guo)机床制造商(shang)协会(hui)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))还是NAS(美(mei)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))等,进而分析(xi)各种不(bu)同(tong)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)所规定(ding)的检(jian)测(ce)计算方法(fa)和(he)检(jian)测(ce)环境条件,才不(bu)会(hui)产生误解。

铣圆(yuan)精度是综合(he)评价(jia)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心有(you)(you)关数控(kong)轴的伺服跟随运动特(te)性和数控(kong)系(xi)统插补(bu)功能的主要指标之一(yi)。不(bu)论典型零件是否有(you)(you)此需要,为了(le)将来可能的需要及更好地控(kong)制精度,必须重(zhong)视这一(yi)指标。

要特别注意区别加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)与(yu)机(ji)床精(jing)(jing)度(du)两个(ge)不同的(de)(de)概念。将生(sheng)产(chan)厂家样本(ben)上(shang)或(huo)产(chan)品合(he)(he)格证上(shang)的(de)(de)位置精(jing)(jing)度(du)当作卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)是错误(wu)的(de)(de)。样本(ben)或(huo)合(he)(he)格证上(shang)标(biao)明的(de)(de)位置精(jing)(jing)度(du)是加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)本(ben)身的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du),而加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)是包(bao)括卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)本(ben)身所(suo)允许误(wu)差(cha)在内的(de)(de)整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)(xi)统各种因素所(suo)产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)误(wu)差(cha)总(zong)和。整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)(xi)统误(wu)差(cha)产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)原(yuan)因是很(hen)复(fu)杂的(de)(de),很(hen)难用(yong)线性关系(xi)(xi)定(ding)(ding)量表达。选型时,可(ke)参考工(gong)(gong)(gong)序能力系(xi)(xi)数Cp的(de)(de)评定(ding)(ding)方法来作为机(ji)床加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)的(de)(de)选型依据(ju)。一般(ban)而言,Cp应(ying)大于(yu)1.33。

站内高精密(mi)的几款(kuan)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心性能(neng)都不错。

建议:采(cai)购(gou)用户在挑选不(bu)同精(jing)度(du)的卧式加工中(zhong)心时(shi),需要(yao)考虑(lv):不(bu)同标(biao)准对(dui)应的单位长度(du)含义;重视铣(xian)圆精(jing)度(du)指标(biao);区别加工精(jing)度(du)和(he)机床精(jing)度(du)。

4我应该选择哪种数控系(xi)统(tong)?——数控系(xi)统(tong)的选定

数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)分为基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)与选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),可以从操作(zuo)方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、用(yong)户功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、控制方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、驱动形式(shi)、反(fan)馈形式(shi)、接口(kou)形式(shi)、检(jian)测(ce)与测(ce)量(liang)、报警与提(ti)示、故障诊断等方(fang)(fang)面综合衡量(liang)。基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须(xu)提(ti)供的(de)(de),而(er)(er)只(zhi)有当用(yong)户选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择了选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂家才会另行提(ti)供并(bing)另行加价,且定(ding)价一般较高(gao)。总体(ti)(ti)而(er)(er)言,数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)一定(ding)要根据加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)性能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)需(xu)要来选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择,订(ding)购时(shi)既要把(ba)需(xu)要的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)订(ding)全,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时(shi)避免使用(yong)率(lv)不高(gao)而(er)(er)造(zao)成(cheng)浪费,还需(xu)注意各功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)关联(lian)性。另一方(fang)(fang)面,在可供选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择的(de)(de)数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统中,如SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)统、FANUC系(xi)(xi)统、国(guo)产(chan)华中数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统等,性能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)低差别很(hen)大,价格亦相差很(hen)大,进口(kou)系(xi)(xi)统或国(guo)产(chan)系(xi)(xi)统亦决定(ding)其价格的(de)(de)高(gao)低。总体(ti)(ti)上来看,法兰(lan)克系(xi)(xi)统性价比(bi)(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较高(gao),国(guo)内卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)使用(yong)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)(bi)较高(gao)。站内卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)使用(yong)法兰(lan)克数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统的(de)(de)也比(bi)(bi)(bi)较多(duo),比(bi)(bi)(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都(dou)是比(bi)(bi)(bi)较好的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择。多(duo)台卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),应尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)同一厂家的(de)(de)数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统,这样操作(zuo)、编程、维修都(dou)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较方(fang)(fang)便(bian)。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需要(yao)选择几台卧式加工(gong)中心能(neng)达到的我的产量要(yao)求?——生产能(neng)力的估算

选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),必(bi)须(xu)要(yao)考虑卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)能达到的(de)生(sheng)产能力,即(ji)要(yao)求选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)(ding)的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)在(zai)一(yi)(yi)年之内能加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几(ji)种典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出多少数(shu)(shu)量的(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)。要(yao)得到这些数(shu)(shu)据(ju)(ju)必(bi)须(xu)对每一(yi)(yi)种确(que)定(ding)(ding)的(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)进行(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和(he)生(sheng)产节拍的(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一(yi)(yi)般步(bu)骤(zhou)为:首先(xian),根据(ju)(ju)已选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)(ding)的(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)进行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分析(xi),初步(bu)确(que)定(ding)(ding)一(yi)(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线(xian),在(zai)这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线(xian)中(zhong)(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)出准备在(zai)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第(di)二(er),根据(ju)(ju)现用的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu)(shu),估(gu)算(suan)出每道(dao)在(zai)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)单(dan)个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)间;第(di)三,由每个单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)间计(ji)算(suan)出选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)(ding)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)在(zai)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)总时(shi)间,进而计(ji)算(suan)出年产量即(ji)生(sheng)产能力。如果估(gu)算(suan)结果达不到目标值,但(dan)相差不大(da),则可以(yi)通(tong)过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu)(shu)的(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以(yi)调整(zheng);如果相差很大(da),则应考虑增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)台数(shu)(shu)的(de)配置。

建(jian)议:采购(gou)用户(hu)需要根据工(gong)件加工(gong)工(gong)时和生产节拍(pai)的估算,决定(ding)卧式加工(gong)中心配(pei)备台数。

6卧(wo)式加工中心有好多选配(pei)的附(fu)件(jian)我应该如(ru)何选配(pei)?——其他功能部件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian)的选定

(1)坐(zuo)标轴数(shu)和(he)联动轴数(shu)

坐标轴(zhou)数和联动轴(zhou)数均应满足典型零件(jian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)要(yao)求。一(yi)般情况下(xia),同(tong)(tong)厂家、同(tong)(tong)规格、同(tong)(tong)等精度(du)的卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),增加(jia)(jia)一(yi)个标准坐标轴(zhou),价格约增加(jia)(jia)30%—50%。尽管增加(jia)(jia)坐标轴(zhou)数可以强化(hua)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的功能(neng),是机床上(shang)档次的标志之一(yi),但最终还是要(yao)在工(gong)艺要(yao)求和资金条件(jian)下(xia)平衡决定。

(2)工作台(tai)

卧式加(jia)工中心可(ke)配(pei)(pei)置(zhi)用于分度的(de)回转工作台和数控回转工作台,后(hou)者能够实(shi)现任意分度,作为B轴与(yu)其他轴联动控制(zhi)。回转工作台配(pei)(pei)置(zhi)与(yu)否(fou)以及如何配(pei)(pei)置(zhi)必须以实(shi)际需(xu)要来确定,以经济、实(shi)用为目的(de)。

(3)自(zi)动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)选(xuan)择(ze)主要(yao)考虑(lv)换刀时间(jian)与可(ke)(ke)靠性(xing)。过分(fen)强调换刀时间(jian)会使加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)价(jia)格大(da)幅度(du)提(ti)高(gao)(gao)并(bing)使故(gu)障率(lv)上(shang)升(sheng)。据统计,加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)故(gu)障中(zhong)约(yue)有50%与ATC有关,因此,在满(man)足使用要(yao)求的(de)前提(ti)下,尽量选(xuan)用可(ke)(ke)靠性(xing)高(gao)(gao)的(de)ATC,以降(jiang)低(di)故(gu)障率(lv)和整机成本

(4)必要的附件、配套件

选(xuan)型时,还(hai)应(ying)注意(yi)选(xuan)用一些(xie)(xie)配(pei)套件(jian)及(ji)附件(jian),尽(jin)(jin)量(liang)避免因(yin)缺少一个几万元就能购买的附件(jian)而影(ying)响卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心的正(zheng)常运行。慎(shen)重选(xuan)择刀(dao)柄和(he)刀(dao)具(ju)也是(shi)保证卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心正(zheng)常运行的关(guan)键,最佳的选(xuan)择办法应(ying)是(shi)根据典型零件(jian)所需(xu)(xu)的品种和(he)数(shu)量(liang)来确定,并在(zai)使用中(zhong)(zhong)陆续添置(zhi)。在(zai)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心的构成中(zhong)(zhong),排屑装(zhuang)置(zhi)、防(fang)护装(zhuang)置(zhi)和(he)对刀(dao)装(zhuang)置(zhi) (如(ru)(ru)刀(dao)具(ju)预(yu)调仪)等均是(shi)必(bi)需(xu)(xu)的,对一些(xie)(xie)尽(jin)(jin)管不(bu)是(shi)必(bi)需(xu)(xu)的配(pei)套件(jian),但如(ru)(ru)果价(jia)格不(bu)高(gao),对使用带来很多方便,也应(ying)尽(jin)(jin)量(liang)选(xuan)用,如(ru)(ru)附件(jian)铣头、储刀(dao)料(liao)架(jia)、运刀(dao)具(ju)车、装(zhuang)卸器(qi)等。

建(jian)议:配(pei)(pei)件(jian)越高,能(neng)实(shi)现的功能(neng)越多,但价格也越贵,采购用户需要根(gen)据(ju)加(jia)工(gong)需求酌情选(xuan)配(pei)(pei)。

7卧式加工中心选型时还有(you)什么(me)其他(ta)需要(yao)注意的?——需要(yao)注意的一(yi)些问题

(1)结构设计

加工(gong)(gong)中心对其床身、立柱、工(gong)(gong)作台、主(zhu)轴(zhou)以及刀库等功能部(bu)件(jian)的(de)结(jie)构设计(ji)有着很高的(de)要求(qiu),以达(da)到其高强(qiang)度(du)、高刚度(du)、高抗振性和(he)稳定(ding)性的(de)目的(de)。选(xuan)型时,应特别注意把其结(jie)构作为(wei)一项(xiang)重要的(de)具体内容来(lai)进行(xing)要求(qiu)与考虑。

(2)功能与加工的适应性

虽然加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心可以进行钻(zuan)、扩(kuo)、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃(nai)至车削(xue) (如(ru)车铣复合加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心)等多种加(jia)工(gong)(gong),但是在具体选择(ze)时(shi),还应根据具体需(xu)要(yao)来考虑机床的功能与加(jia)工(gong)(gong)是否相适应等问题。要(yao)注意以下(xia)几点:

A、复杂曲线(xian)(xian)加工(gong)时,要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)CNC是否有所(suo)需要(yao)(yao)的曲线(xian)(xian)插(cha)补(bu)功能,或选择什么(me)方式逼近加工(gong)曲线(xian)(xian)并保证所(suo)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)的表(biao)面粗糙度。三维加工(gong)时,要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)选择适合的刀具结构,还(hai)要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)程(cheng)序编制能力(li),如(ru)有必要(yao)(yao)则必须配备自(zi)动编程(cheng)装(zhuang)置或后置处理编程(cheng)装(zhuang)置。

B、需要进行(xing)(xing)螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)纹(wen)方式(shi))时,不仅要看(kan)是否(fou)有螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue)功(gong)能、螺(luo)旋(xuan)线插补功(gong)能和主轴转动(dong)与进给同步功(gong)能,还要考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)机床是否(fou)有径向进给装置、是否(fou)有主轴在旋(xuan)转方向上(shang)任意角度位置准确定位功(gong)能。否(fou)则,仅在数(shu)控系统中用(yong)了螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue)功(gong)能仍(reng)然无法进行(xing)(xing)螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)削(xue)C、采(cai)用(yong)金刚铰(jiao)、浮(fu)动(dong)镗和挤压加(jia)工(gong)等特种加(jia)工(gong)时,既要考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)适宜的自动(dong)换刀的条件,又要考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)选择合适的刀具结(jie)构和切(qie)削(xue)用(yong)量,应尽可能在购买主机时一并(bing)购置部(bu)分易损(sun)部(bu)件及(ji)其他(ta)附件等。

D、如果有应(ying)用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规(gui)划(hua),或要进行网络制造,则要注意通信(xin)功(gong)能(neng),应(ying)选择具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通信(xin)、CAN总线等接口的系统(tong)。

(3)运(yun)转的可靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建(jian)议:采购用户在选型(xing)时,需(xu)要对卧式加(jia)工中心整体的(de)(de)结构(gou)设(she)计、可靠(kao)性以(yi)及价加(jia)工适(shi)应性有客观的(de)(de)认(ren)识(shi)。


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