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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:chushiji.yn.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)由(you)主体、驱动(dong)系(xi)统和(he)控制(zhi)(zhi)系(xi)统三个基(ji)本部(bu)(bu)分组成。按机(ji)器人结构分类为直角坐(zuo)标型(xing),机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)沿二维直角坐(zuo)标系(xi)移(yi)动(dong)。主体部(bu)(bu)分通(tong)常采(cai)用龙(long)门式结构,由(you)y向横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)与导轨(gui)、z向滑枕(zhen)、十字滑座(zuo)、立柱、过渡连接板和(he)基(ji)座(zuo)等部(bu)(bu)分组成,z向的直线运动(dong)皆为交流伺(si)服电动(dong)机(ji)通(tong)过蜗(wo)轮(lun)减速(su)器驱动(dong)齿(chi)轮(lun)与y向横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)、z向滑枕(zhen)上(shang)固定的齿(chi)条作滚(gun)动(dong),驱动(dong)移(yi)动(dong)部(bu)(bu)件沿导轨(gui)快速(su)运动(dong)。移(yi)动(dong)部(bu)(bu)件为质(zhi)量较轻的十字滑座(zuo)和(he)z向滑枕(zhen),滑枕(zhen)采(cai)用由(you)铝合金拉制(zhi)(zhi)的型(xing)材。横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)采(cai)用方钢型(xing)材,在横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)上(shang)安装(zhuang)有(you)导轨(gui)和(he)齿(chi)条,通(tong)过滚(gun)轮(lun)与导轨(gui)接触,整个机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)都(dou)悬挂在其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)快,加(jia)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)大,加(jia)减速(su)时(shi)间短。当(dang)输(shu)送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)工件时(shi),惯(guan)量大,因(yin)此,伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)电机(ji)要(yao)有(you)(you)(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)和制动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)力,支撑(cheng)元(yuan)件也要(yao)有(you)(you)(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)(du)(du)。只有(you)(you)(you)这样,才能(neng)(neng)使伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)满(man)足桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)响应、高(gao)(gao)刚度(du)(du)(du)(du)及高(gao)(gao)精度(du)(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求。在(zai)(zai)选择合适伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根(gen)据(ju)物(wu)料运动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离(li)和运行节拍,计算出伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移和轨迹,对(dui)(dui)驱动(dong)(dong)器PID参数进行动(dong)(dong)态(tai)调整。桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)根(gen)据(ju)接(jie)收到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移、速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)指令,经变化、放大并(bing)(bing)调整处理后,传递给运动(dong)(dong)单元(yuan),通(tong)过(guo)光纤(xian)传感器对(dui)(dui)运行状态(tai)进行实时(shi)检(jian)测(ce),在(zai)(zai)高(gao)(gao)速(su)搬运过(guo)程中(zhong),运动(dong)(dong)部件在(zai)(zai)极短的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内到(dao)达给定的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du),并(bing)(bing)能(neng)(neng)在(zai)(zai)高(gao)(gao)速(su)行程中(zhong)瞬间准停(ting),通(tong)过(guo)高(gao)(gao)分(fen)辩(bian)率绝(jue)对(dui)(dui)式(shi)编码器的(de)(de)(de)插补运算,控(kong)制机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)误差和测(ce)量误差对(dui)(dui)运动(dong)(dong)精度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)影响。由(you)于被输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)工件不同(tong)(tong),质量也不同(tong)(tong),因(yin)此,桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)有(you)(you)(you)多种规格和系列。在(zai)(zai)选择时(shi),根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)送(song)工件的(de)(de)(de)质量,加(jia)工的(de)(de)(de)节拍来(lai)选取。但机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)臂,夹(jia)持(chi)方式(shi),则(ze)根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)送(song)工件的(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机(ji)床夹(jia)具(ju)定夹(jia)方式(shi)来(lai)设计(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)能够(gou)借助可编程序来处理和(he)执行任(ren)务。机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)主要(yao)由手(shou)(shou)(shou)图 1 臂(bei)、回转装置、运动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)及驱动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)组成(cheng)。通过对工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)外形(xing)或工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)上定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)支撑点(dian)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)。例(li)如,在(zai)汽车发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)加工(gong)(gong)柔性自动(dong)(dong)线物(wu)流输送中,桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持模块(kuai)会(hui)根据(ju)缸体、缸盖、曲(qu)轴等工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)外形(xing)特点(dian),选取(qu)不同(tong)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持方式。柔性机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)上采用气缸和(he)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)进(jin)行定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持模块(kuai)的(de)(de)切换(huan)(huan)驱动(dong)(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)可完成(cheng)不同(tong)品(pin)(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)可根据(ju)产品(pin)(pin)质(zhi)量(liang)和(he)外形(xing)的(de)(de)大小(xiao)采用系(xi)列化设计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)上的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)安装方式相同(tong),针对不同(tong)系(xi)列的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian),只(zhi)需切换(huan)(huan)相应的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)模块(kuai)即(ji)可,满(man)足快速切换(huan)(huan)的(de)(de)需要(yao)。这样,当(dang)加工(gong)(gong)不同(tong)品(pin)(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian),只(zhi)须变换(huan)(huan)夹(jia)(jia)持模块(kuai)就可实现,提高(gao)了桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)柔性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线(xian)桁架机械手(shou)输送装置的(de)发展(zhan)及现状(zhuang)

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了(le)(le)刚性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时(shi)代。就(jiu)目(mu)前(qian)而(er)言(yan), 在国内二者均有(you)之(zhi)。刚性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆杆、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形(xing)式。随着加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由其(qi)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代组(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适应小批(pi)量多(duo)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优(you)点(dian),得到市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并(bing)称(cheng)(cheng)其(qi)为(wei)(wei)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种以(yi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装置(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依(yi)然为(wei)(wei)刚性(xing), 这(zhei)类(lei)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓(wei)是(shi)(shi)准(zhun)柔(rou)性(xing)。当(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又有(you)了(le)(le)飞(fei)跃(yue),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式以(yi)刚性(xing)加(jia)(jia)柔(rou)性(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou))并(bing)存(cun),或(huo)纯(chun)柔(rou)性(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系统全部由桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng),这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)性(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系统也柔(rou)性(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心配以(yi)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又称(cheng)(cheng)之(zhi)为(wei)(wei)敏捷柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏捷制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)部分(fen)(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采用桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随意改变(bian)(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装位置(zhi)不再(zai)象刚性(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按(an)照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距或(huo)步(bu)距倍(bei)数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进行严格(ge)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装,且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速(su)度也可(ke)根据(ju)生(sheng)产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)而(er)改变(bian)(bian)。而(er)真正(zheng)体(ti)现柔(rou)性(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)一(yi)面(mian)是(shi)(shi),当(dang)被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品改变(bian)(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部分(fen)(fen)(fen)不会(hui)不适应而(er)全部更换,只要(yao)改变(bian)(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)局(ju)部结构即(ji)可(ke)。采用桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面(mian)是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统一(yi)。因此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)才(cai)在当(dang)今柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越(yue)来越(yue)多(duo)地被采用,使整个生(sheng)产过(guo)程通(tong)过(guo)信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)(xi)流(liu)系统进行控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong),所需各种信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)(xi)收(shou)集、处理、反馈,并(bing)通(tong)过(guo)电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其(qi)他控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)装置(zhi)(液压、气压装置(zhi)等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实(shi)行分(fen)(fen)(fen)级控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)(xi)流(liu)系统分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)由中(zhong)(zhong)央管(guan)理计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)以(yi)及(ji)信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络(luo)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)。目(mu)前(qian),汽车制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造业中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及(ji)曲轴等(deng)大批(pi)量关键(jian)零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采用了(le)(le)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国内(nei)外的差距

当下,我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展很(hen)(hen)快(kuai),技术水(shui)平有了很(hen)(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高(gao),与国(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差距变得越(yue)(yue)来越(yue)(yue)小(xiao),甚(shen)至有些(xie)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)外相比已经没有什么差距。特别(bie)是(shi)国(guo)家(jia)重大(da)科技专项(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)开展,为(wei)我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档(dang)次上(shang)水(shui)平提(ti)高(gao)了加速度(du),成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)绩(ji)显而易见(jian)。加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)特别(bie)快(kuai),但柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)平和档(dang)次,较国(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差距还很(hen)(hen)明显,国(guo)外采用(yong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)较为(wei)普遍,而国(guo)内(nei)(nei)却(que)为(wei)数不多,国(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞大(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽车(che)生(sheng)(sheng)产市(shi)场所采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)外进口。如(ru)无锡柴油发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)(gang)体缸(gang)(gang)盖柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)GROB公司总承包,由BZ800加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试(shi)漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压(ya)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)(zai)线(xian)(xian)检具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)。输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采用(yong)空中(zhong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)。仅(jin)以(yi)汽车(che)制造(zao)业而言,国(guo)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)产的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),采用(yong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指可数。大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)和沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)等生(sheng)(sheng)产出了该方(fang)面的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在(zai)(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)产实际中(zhong)得到了应用(yong)。图4是(shi)大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)生(sheng)(sheng)产的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)体加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两(liang)种缸(gang)(gang)体,分别(bie)为(wei)四缸(gang)(gang)和六(liu)缸(gang)(gang),其输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采用(yong)空中(zhong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形式。桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)两(liang)个(ge),一(yi)个(ge)上(shang)料(liao)(liao),一(yi)个(ge)下料(liao)(liao)。它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)功,标志着我国(guo)国(guo)产由桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)际水(shui)准迈进。

上(shang)述提(ti)及(ji)的(de)(de)(de)只是数(shu)量上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)比较,其实(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)原因还是国(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机械手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)技术水平与(yu)(yu)国(guo)外(wai)有着一(yi)定的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距。柔性加(jia)工自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)采用的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架机械手(shou),也是从国(guo)外(wai)进口的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架机械手(shou)。那(nei)时(shi),国(guo)内(nei)还没有专门生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机械手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)厂家。如今,国(guo)内(nei)巨一(yi)等一(yi)些桁(heng)(heng)架机械手(shou)生产(chan)(chan)厂家的(de)(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔性加(jia)工自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)带来了希(xi)望(wang),进而缩小了与(yu)(yu)国(guo)外(wai)在生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机械手(shou)方面的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距,国(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机械手(shou)在柔性加(jia)工自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)应用也越来越多(duo),从而打(da)破(po)国(guo)产(chan)(chan)市(shi)场被外(wai)国(guo)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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